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Training
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Creating customized training programs for individuals or teams within organizations can be effective when the organization needs to increase skill sets for their most valuable asset – people. However, training is not the answer when it is just a way to avoid decisions like changing the organizations strategic direction, the structure of the organization or the compensation system.

Over our years in business, Organized Change has created and facilitated training programs in virtually every facet of management: management training, coaching and even management style. We can tailor a new course specific to the needs of your organization or just as easily provide you a time-tested program.

We are ready to provide our years of experience and knowledge so that you can consider which approach is best for you – organizationally and financially. Please contact us.

Articles by David Chaudron, PhD


Avoid the Training Hammer when Implementing Change

David Chaudron, PhD

Implementing organizational change is not easy and many of us find it frustrating when the organization says it wants change but then provides us with a great deal of resistance. Designing and implementing any organizational change effort requires executive or top-level support—of which there is very little or none at all. So goes the phrase—actions speak louder than words.

The reason we may not get the support we need is that training may not be the right implementation strategy. Training works when the causes of problems have to do with the lack of skill or knowledge to perform a task. Certainly, few Americans know statistics, QFD or experimentation well enough for today's quality-minded company: but if poor knowledge or skill is not the cause, training is not the solution. Someone once said, “If you give someone a hammer, every problem looks like a nail." There are a myriad of other possible causes that block implementation does your organization employ these?

To continue reading this article click here Avoiding the Training Hammer.

The Three Degrees of 360 Degree Feedback: Giving Feedback on Management Style

David Chaudron, PhD

Giving feedback on management style is one of the more difficult tasks of organizational change. For better or worse, changes in mission, organizational structure, pay systems, and who gets hired may affect you personally, but the changes are not directly about you. With receiving feedback on your management style, it not only affects you personally, it is personal. It's no wonder that despite it's popularity, implementing systems that give feedback on management style must be done with caution given the sensitive nature of the data and the possible defensiveness of the employees who receive it.

To continue reading this article click here Giving Feedback on Management Style: the 3 degrees of 360 feedback..



Additional Information on Training


L. Boot, Alison and Mark L. Bryan. (2005). Testing some predictions of human capital theory: new training evidence from Britain. The Review of Economics and Statistics. 87 (2), 291-394
On this paper, the authors confront the predictions of human capital theory with training data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) for the period 1998-2000. The sample for this study case comprises private-sector full-time employees from the ages of 16 to 65 and measures training schemes or courses as a variable within five categories: induction training (to get started in current job), training that serves to improve skills in the current job (increase and improve skills in current job), preparation training for a future job, and training to develop skills generally. The distinction is between training categories of current job skills and general skills.
The hypotheses from human capital theory considered in this study are that
a) Workers in competitive labor markets will invest in general work-related training by receiving low training wages and will reap the returns by receiving higher wages afterward.
b) If the firm acts as a lender, it can pay workers more than their marginal product during training and less afterward. *
c) Considering that in the specific training model it is efficient for the firm and worker to share both the costs and net returns of the training investment, workers’ wages will be above net productivity during training and below after. The magnitude of this wedge will reflect the degree of cost sharing.
d) The Acemoglu and Pischke’s model which is based on mobility costs states that even though workers receive a positive return to their training, the current employer has monopsony power over the worker because of mobility costs. As a consequence, wages will increase more with future employers than with the current employer. *
e) Taking the effects of asymmetry of information about the value of firm-provided training (in which the firm that provides general training knows its value while others don´t).
However, the results are only consistent with hypotheses b and d since employees finance transferable training. The authors also found accredited employer-financed training to be more associated with higher wages at both current and future employees than nonaccredited training besides that only accredited training is transferable between employers.

Adel I. El-Ansary. (1993). Sales Force Effectiveness Research Reveals New Insights and Reward-Penalty Patterns in Sales Force Training. The Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management. 12 (2), 83-90
There are five important factors that have a positive effect outside sales force performance: team-work, training, supplier relations, hiring practices and personality characteristics. With training being the second most significant factor for performance, this study was based on the analysis of 171 sales managers and 812 salespeople’s ratings of the length, content, sources, and training methods to train both new and experiences salespeople, as well as their importance. Low performing sales forces and top performing sales forces have different training characteristics regardless of the similarities between their training budgets and evaluation of training. The practices of top performing sales forces include lengthier training periods (3 to 9 months), and broader methods, sources (company trainers, trade associations, vendor sales force, department managers, and vendor training schools), and content of training.
Among the training methods we can include mill tours, on customer premises, special outside courses, self-administered training, and rotation between departments. Five factors for new salespeople’s training content were identified. The leading factor is Strategy Training, which is training with strategy-oriented components such as strategic markets and products, company and marketing strategies, and market knowledge. Another factor is Control, understood as control-oriented training like inventory management, cost accounting, and general management skills. Interpersonal and Communication skills, Knowledge (of industry, of product, of company, and of customer), and Planning are other factors. Together, these factors constitute 70% of the variation in training content.
The authors conclude their study remarking that a larger investment in sales forces training will not assure a top performance ranking. They recommend the following actions: relocating training budgets that would balance new and experienced salespersons’ training, re-focusing training content to balance strategy-oriented training with knowledge and interpersonal communication skills training, diversifying training sources and methods for new salespersons’ training, and involving suppliers and customers in merchant sales force training.

Méndez, Fabio and Facundo Sepúlveda. (2015). A Comparative Study of Training in the Private and Public Sectors: Evidence from the United Kingdom and the United States.
Contemporary Economic Policy. 31 (1).

This paper provides a comparative study to determinate the effects of training, public-employer-training and private-employer-provided, on wages of individual workers in the United States and in the United Kingdom. For this, two panels, one for the UK and one for the US, are created in order to more easily compare worker’s training incidence, employment status, wage rates, and other relevant variables. Among the results we can mention that even though both public and private employer-provided training improve productivity in similar ways, the question as to why private training might not be fully portable to the public sector remains. It was also found that in both the US and the UK training is associated with wages. The UK presents a 0.7% of increase while the US presents 2%.

Chris Obisi. (2011). Employee Training and Development in Nigerian Organisations: Some observations and agenda for research.
Australian Journal of Business and Management Research. Vol. 1, No. 9
The results of this paper on training show that there is a poor attitude towards training administration: trainees are neither prepared nor equipped before, during and after training programs. The author suggests that priority should be given to empirical analysis of the significance of identifying specific and appropriate needs before venturing into training as well as understanding why training fails. Adding value and reworking on training programs should be the ultimate goals of any training programs according to Obisi, as lack of training will make it very difficult to acquire the necessary skills required by organizations to reach its objectives through people.
When we ask for the ultimate aim of training and development programs, the answer given by the paper is that they should add value to human resource. “Any training and development program that would not add value should be abandoned”. Both training and development ought to be a continuous activity as they are essential elements of an organization’s growth. An interesting element of this paper is the personal experience that is added by the author to make it more accessible, in this way he exemplifies the consequences that training, or the lack of it, has for an organization. While there are citations of other authors, the personal comment adds an interesting element that adds to the reason behind the author’s interest in employee training and development, with an specific focus in Nigerian Organisations.

Essential Not Optional: Why Employee Training and Development Matters

https://www.biv.com/article/2014/9/essential-not-optional-why-employee-training-devel/

Employee training and development are important to ensure your employees’ skills, abilities and knowledge levels are being regularly updated. In addition to onboarding new hires, individual employee development plans, succession planning, addressing technology changes, addressing legal/regulatory issues and changes, and adaptation and response to structural change there are a number of key benefits discussed in this article that come from organizations that make employee training and development a priority.

These benefits include increased productivity, return on investment (ROI), increased employee satisfaction and retention, and fostering an organizational learning culture. The increased productivity is said to occur by closing skills, knowledge and performance gaps, and arming your employees with new ideas, best practices and skills that they can put into practice in their jobs right away, their competence, ability and confidence levels increase. The ROI is able to be measured in a variety of ways such as pre- and post-training assessments and measure the improvement; you can then translate this into financial return when you calculate the value of saved time, increased productivity, increased sales. Increased employee satisfaction and retention is mainly related to the reduction of the turnover rate which we all know results in high costs. Finally, fostering a learning culture at your organization is important because expectations are clearly set from the beginning and benefits for the employee and for the organization are shared.

Training and Establishment Survival

In this paper, the authors set out to determine the relationship between training and the commercial survival of establishments with a view to establish how employer training affects company performance. The authors earmarked a seven-year period during which the performance of several British companies was analyzed and the probability of their commercial survival mapped. The information gleaned from observing these companies clearly confirmed a definite link between training and the commercial survival of establishments. It is also vital to note that more detailed analysis proved that the benefits accrued from providing training varied drastically according to the groups that underwent training as well as according to the to the size of the company.

The authors found that in companies with 200 employees or more, increasing training of people in the Professional, Sales, and Clerical and Secretarial occupations led to a greater chance of survival. In smaller companies (those with less than 200 employees), increased training of people employed in the Operatives and Assembly, Personal and Protective Service, and Craft and Technical professions led to better chances of survival. The authors admit that studies such as the one conducted for this paper cannot help individual employers to determine the returns to their own training budget. Nevertheless, they suggest that information about the link between training and performance, extracted from observing many establishments, can certainly help employers make better judgements. In addition, such analysis can also help policy-makers disseminate better information about the training that companies need to provide to employees.

Firm size and the effectiveness of training for customer service


Leea, Gregory John

International Journal of Human Resource Management, August 1, 2012, Vol.23(12), p.2597(17)

This article examines ‘customer service’ training methods and its success among different firm sizes. Although research agrees that larger firms usually offer better training and better service, placement of training within a high-performance HR system usually achieves valued customer service skills. The article suggests that the benefit of training for customer service increases significantly with firm size the two major components associated with the success are: policy and practice.

Developing Managerial Effectiveness; Assessing and comparing the impact of development programs.
John Kenworthy
Developments in Business Simulations and Experiential Learning, Volume 32, 2005
This research evaluates the effectiveness of using a management simulation, a management game or case studies within a strategic management training program. The literature suggests that there is anecdotal evidence that both simulations and games surpass the use of case studies,
but there is much criticism of the lack of robust research models used to validate the claims.

This study indicates that there are differences between management development programs using a management simulation, a management game and case studies. All programs impacted behavior change and learning and there are strong indications that the choice of simulation,
game or case study does make a difference to the extent of the impact. There is little substantive difference between the management simulation and the management game though both show greater positive behavior change and greater learning than the case study group. The results show
that using a simulation or game in a program significantly increases participant enjoyment and perceived usefulness – suggesting that engagement in the learning activity is higher and that practice in using skills in a realistic (simulated) setting is fundamental in transferring the learning to the workplace.

Effectiveness of Training in Organizations: A Meta-Analysis of Design and Evaluation Features

Winfred Arthur Jr., Winston Bennett Jr., and Pamela S. Edens, and Suzanne T. Bell

This study researched the effectiveness of training programs in organizations by using meta-analytic procedures. The findings in the article suggest that specific training design and the skill or task characteristic trained and selected training evaluation features, resulted in increased effectiveness of training programs.
Training and Development: A jump starter for employee performance and organization effectiveness

Devi, V., & Shaik, N. (2012). Training and Development: A jump starter for employee performance and organization effectiveness. International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research, 1(7).

Training and development programs are very crucial to the employees as well as their organization. Research has shown and it has been well understood by the organizations that the organization’s most values asses is human capital and it is an undisputed fact that effective training is investment in the human resources of the organization with both immediate and long term return on investments. This paper is based on the review of different literature on various viewpoint regarding training and performance.
The overall results of this short article based on literature review is that training and development ultimately not only the performance of employees but also of the organization as a whole. It is important for those companies who want to be successful, to create and maintain their competitive advantage in the 21st century are able to hire the right talent and learn faster than their competitors.
Training improves the drive, initiative and quality of work of the employees thus assist them to be more committed to achieving goals and objectives for the organization and as a result it enhances the effectiveness of workplace among employees within the same company.
Benefits of training and development for individuals and teams, organizations and society.

Benefits of training and development for individuals and teams, organizations and society

Aguinis, H., Kraiger, K. (2009). Benefits of training and development for individuals and teams, organizations and society. Annual Review of Psychology. 60, 451-474.

The buzzword in organizations today is training and development. According to American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) US organizations alone spend more than $126 billion annually on employee training and development. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the training and development literature for the past 15 years.

Research has shown that training related changes is associated with improved job performance greater innovation and tacit skills as well as providing financial benefits to the organization by improving the bottom line.

To maximize the benefits of training organizations must pay close attention to needs, assessment and pre-training states. A major part of pre-training is individual’s attitudes expectations and the willingness to engage with the training. The second stage is the design and delivery of the training. An essential part of training is the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the training program. Kirkpatrick four level approach to training evaluation continues to be the mostly widely used model for evaluation.

The last stage, which by it self is a form of training evaluation, is the ability of employees to transfer learned skills to their daily work to increase productivity and achieve organizational goals.

Essential Not Optional: Why Employee Training and Development Matters

https://www.biv.com/article/2014/9/essential-not-optional-why-employee-training-devel/

Employee training and development are important to ensure your employees’ skills, abilities and knowledge levels are being regularly updated. In addition to onboarding new hires, individual employee development plans, succession planning, addressing technology changes, addressing legal/regulatory issues and changes, and adaptation and response to structural change there are a number of key benefits discussed in this article that come from organizations that make employee training and development a priority.

These benefits include increased productivity, return on investment (ROI), increased employee satisfaction and retention, and fostering an organizational learning culture. The increased productivity is said to occur by closing skills, knowledge and performance gaps, and arming your employees with new ideas, best practices and skills that they can put into practice in their jobs right away, their competence, ability and confidence levels increase. The ROI is able to be measured in a variety of ways such as pre- and post-training assessments and measure the improvement; you can then translate this into financial return when you calculate the value of saved time, increased productivity, increased sales. Increased employee satisfaction and retention is mainly related to the reduction of the turnover rate which we all know results in high costs. Finally, fostering a learning culture at your organization is important because expectations are clearly set from the beginning and benefits for the employee and for the organization are shared.
Vijayabanu, C., & Amudha, R. (2012). A Study on Efficacy of Employee Training

The success of any organization depends on appropriate use of human assets—Workers or Employees—available in the organization. Given that all other assets could only be supplementary to human assets, it is important for the organization to focus both internally and externally on developing the ability, wisdom and skills of its workforce. The effectiveness of this training is dependent on two considerations: (1) Trainers are fully responsible for training and if the employees do not show results, the trainer should be held accountable (2) Training effectiveness depends of the kind of atmosphere and culture that is prevalent back at home.
Training is the basis for the development of the human asset and it is a tool to attain individual, organizational needs related to the jobs undertaken and is also intended to improve the work culture of the group involved in a group task. This paper summarizes the results of literature review on the effectiveness of training programs from a diverse perspective and has the following objectives: (1) To evaluate the pre- training arrangements, need identification methods and their operational utility. (2) To analyze the effectiveness of training programs on self- need attainment. (3) To evaluate the effect of the training programs on group dynamism, group performance and group needs. (4) To evaluate the impact of training programs on organizational needs and goals.
The pre-training arrangement process is a necessity for the success of any training program and it is important that it is planned and arranged in a sequential order. It will consist of various elements like training need identification, selection of right participants and imparting training through an appropriate method with proper application of training techniques. The impact of training on self-needs attainment is important because basically people come to work to achieve their own self-needs and objectives and in this process ultimately, the organization gets benefited. The effect of training programs on group dynamism and group needs is important because ‘groups’ gain more importance for the basic reason that they will carry out the task more effectively than an individuals and this results in the overall organizational objective attainment. Finally, the impact of training on organization needs is a vital aspect because an organization must go through frequent changes in order to keep up with the evolving workplace and training can affect the organizational performance in two ways; first is the increase in knowledge and skills which in turn improves customer satisfaction and second, it affects staff retention which is underpinned by staff satisfaction.
Initiatives for the improvement of continuous management training
Jon Landeta , Jon Barrutia, Jon Hoyos, Andrés Araujo
Cuadernos de Gestión Vol. 15 - Nº 1 (2015), pp. 61-92
This work aims to present, from the company viewpoint, a structured account of management proposals and practices directed toward improving the intensity and effectiveness of continuous management training (CMT). The article takes as its main theoretical referents the Theory of Human Capital, the Resource-Based Vision and the contributions made via the new institutional economy with regard to the problems of information asymmetry between companies, employees and training providers and completes the proposals that derive from this theoretical approach. To do this, experience-based contributions are collected from a selection of company training and HR managers from twelve Basque companies characterized by their strong investment in management training. The methodology used was qualitative and obtained by different qualitative techniques: Focus Groups, Nominal Groups and the Delphi Method, which make up the so-called Hybrid Delphi.
The proposals are aimed at the main agents in training activity: training providers,
associations and public agents engaged in management training and, particularly, companies themselves. The initiatives seek above all to increase training market transparency, to improve mutual commitments between companies and managers, and to link training and development with culture and strategic management, so that
firms make optimal investment in management training.

Organizational training and signals of importance: Linking pretraining perceptions to intentions to transfer


Baldwin, T. T & Magiuka, R. J. (2006). Organizational training and signals of importance: Linking pretraining perceptions to intentions to transfer. Human Resource Development Quarterly. 2(1), 25-36. DOI: 10.1002/hrdq.3920020106


The organizational literature has suggested that all management actions send signals to employees that affect perceptions and influence behavior. This study investigated the effects of three pretraining signals—course information provided to trainees, accountability to supervisor, and program status (mandatory or voluntary)—on subsequent intentions to transfer program learning. Data collected from 193 trainees in the engineering group of a manufacturing firm indicated that trainees reported greater intentions to transfer learning to the workplace when they (1) received information prior to the training program, (2) recognized that they would have some accountability for learning with their supervisor, and (3) perceived a program as mandatory.




Training and Development: A jump starter for employee performance and organization effectiveness

Devi, V., & Shaik, N. (2012). Training and Development: A jump starter for employee performance and organization effectiveness. International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research, 1(7).

Training and development programs are very crucial to the employees as well as their organization. Research has shown and it has been well understood by the organizations that the organization’s most values asses is human capital and it is an undisputed fact that effective training is investment in the human resources of the organization with both immediate and long term return on investments. This paper is based on the review of different literature on various viewpoint regarding training and performance.
The overall results of this short article based on literature review is that training and development ultimately not only the performance of employees but also of the organization as a whole. It is important for those companies who want to be successful, to create and maintain their competitive advantage in the 21st century are able to hire the right talent and learn faster than their competitors.
Training improves the drive, initiative and quality of work of the employees thus assist them to be more committed to achieving goals and objectives for the organization and as a result it enhances the effectiveness of workplace among employees within the same company.
Benefits of training and development for individuals and teams, organizations and society.




Impact of Employee Training and Empowerment on Employee Creativity Through Employee Engagement: Empirical Evidence from the Manufacturing Section of Pakistan

Nawaz, M. S., Hassan, M., Hassan, S., Shaukat, S., & Asadullah M. A. (2014). Impact of Employee Training and Empowerment on Employee Creativity Through Employee Engagement: Empirical Evidence from the Manufacturing Section of Pakistan. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 19(4), 593-601.

The purpose of this study is to further understand the impact of two high performance work practices, employee training and empowerment on employee creativity, which is mediated by employee engagement. The data was collected from 400 respondents in 110 manufacturing organizations in Pakistan.

According to the Social Exchange Theory (SET) employees feel empowered when they are being valued and trained, which in turn increases employee motivation. Furthermore, engaged employees tend to be more productive, motivated, creative and innovative.

The results of the study suggest that employee empowerment alone does not increase organizational engagement. If employees feel empowered but lack the necessary and sufficient skills to perform they will not be engaged with the firm. It is imperative that both dimensions of human resource practices (empowerment and training) happen simultaneously for employees to become engaged. The overall findings of this research point to the validity of social exchange theory. When organizations value their employees, the firm experience return on human capital by having engaged and innovative employees.

Present study only concentrates on only two of the HR practices states above. Future studies may consider other elements such as recruiting, compensation and rewards, teamwork and job design.


Creating value for employees: investment in employee development

Lee, C. H., & Bruvold, N. T. (2003). Creating value for employees: investment in employee development. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(6), 981-1000

Employee development is considered one of the most significant functions of human resource practice. Recent research suggest that employee development affect organizational outcomes by shaping employee behaviors and attitudes. This article explains the importance of employee development for the organization as a whole.

The results of this study suggest that employees will be more satisfied with the job, more effectively committed to an organization when the employer commits to developing employees’ skills and competency, which in turn reduces their intent to leave the organization. This study also contributes to the broader understanding of the mediating effect of affective commitment and job satisfaction on the intent to leave. The result suggests that a fully mediated model of affective commitment and job satisfaction fits the data better than a partially mediated model.

The findings from this research have important implications for healthcare organizations. Perception of investment in development can improve nurses’ morale and dedication to the level that emotionally binds them to the organization and encourages them to stay on. This implies that healthcare organizations need to pay greater attention, both in investing and planning development activities that promote and develop organizational commitment and job satisfaction among nurses.


Training and Manpower Development in Public Research and Development Organizations


Adegbite, S. A., & Aderemi, H. O. (2014). Training and Manpower Development in Public Research and Development Organizations.

Businesses continually provide training and development workshops/training classes for their employees. This article discusses how effective these workshops and training classes are. In particular, the authors focus on how training and development of employees who work for public research and development companies affect their productivity. The article focuses on public research and development companies that operate in southwest Nigeria (Dickson, A, Stephen, A., and Helen, A., 2014)

The authors also detail factors that inhibit training and development of employees who work for public research and development companies in southwest Nigeria. The authors conclude that development workshops and training does have a positive effect on productivity therefore research and development organizations in the region under study should invest more resources into training its employees. The article also mentions that the primary inhibitor of training for the employees of research and development companies in this region was funding.

التدريب و التطوير(Training)تعمل الشركات على توفير ورش التدريب والتطوير/ دورات تدريبية لموظفيها. تتناول هذه المقالة مدى فعالية هذه الورش والدورات التدريبية. على وجه الخصوص، يركز الكاتب على مدى تأثير التدريب والتطوير على الموظفين الذين يعملون في شركات البحث وكيف يؤثر التدريب على إنتاجيتهم. وتركز هذه المقالة على شركات البحث والتطوير العامه التى تعمل في جنوب غرب نيجيريا
توضح المقالة إيضا العوامل التي تحول دون تدريب الموظفين في الشركات العلمية والتطويرية العامه في جنوب غرب نيجيريا. وتناقش المقالة أن ورش العمل والتدريب لها تأثير إيجابي على الإنتاجية وبالتالي ينبغي للمنظمات التطويرية في تلك المناطق الإستثمار في تدريب موظفيها. ويوضح المقال أن المانع الرئيسي من تدريب العاملين في شركات البحوث والتنمية في تلك المناطق هو التمويل

The Effect of Training and Development on Employee Attitude as it Relates to Training and Work Proficiency

Truitt, D.L. (2012). The Effect of Training and Development on Employee Attitude as it Relates to Training and Work Proficiency. Sage Journals.

The effective training of individuals is imperative to the success of an organization and its employees. This informative article talks about what training is, why it is important, its specific benefits and empirically discusses the relationship between training and development and the perceived impact it has on employee attitudes and perceived job performance competencies.

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between training and development and its perceived impact on employee attitudes and perceived job performance proficiencies. Failure to provide training or education to employees eventually will lead in conflict between the employer and employee. This conflict might become complicated and result with a formal complaints by the employee against the organization.

When an organization invests in its employees there are countless benefits. Training is seen as relevant to encouraging a positive relationship between learning satisfaction and the efficacy of applied learning. Hands on training also enhance staff development, which in turn develops talent within an organization. When talent is correctly and carefully nurtured and fostered, competitive advantages in an organization’s performance are often attained. Successful training has also been shown to produce marked improvement in terms of employee communication, proficiency of performances, as well as an increase in retention.

When organizations target improving communication skills with employees through training, there have been shown to be significant increases in profit as well as an increased number of positive working relationships that are formed. Take a look into this article to get a more in depth understanding of training and how you can efficiently and effectively apply it to your business today!

التدريب و التطوير(Training)أثر التنمية والتدريب على تصرفات الموظفين و قدرتهم على إتقان العملالتدريب الفعّال يعد من الأمور الضرورية لنجاح الشركات وموظفيها. تتحدث هذه الدراسة عن أهمية التدريب ومدى إرتباط التدريب والتطوير على تصرفات الموظفين وأدائهم الوظيفي. تحقق الشركات الكثير من الفوائد عند تدريب الموظفين. ويعد التدريب محفز إيجابي لتحقيق الرضا الوظيفي. ويعزز التدريب قدرات الموظفين والتي بدورها تنمي المواهب داخل الشركة. عندما يتم رعاية المواهب بشكل صحيح تحقق الشركات الكثير من المزايا التنافسية. والتدريب الناجح يحقق تقدما ملحوظا في طرق التواصل بين الموظفين ويحسن الأداء والرضا الوظيفي. وقد ثبت أن تدريب الموظفين له تأثير على زيادة الأرباح وتحسين العلاقات الإدارية. ابحث في هذه الدراسة للحصول على فهم أكبر متعلق بتدريب الموظفين وكيف يمكنك أن تطبق التدريب الأنسب في مكان عملك

Developing Managerial Effectiveness; Assessing and comparing the impact of development programs.
John Kenworthy
Developments in Business Simulations and Experiential Learning, Volume 32, 2005
This research evaluates the effectiveness of using a
management simulation, a management game or case
studies within a strategic management training program.
The literature suggests that there is anecdotal evidence that
both simulations and games surpass the use of case studies,
but there is much criticism of the lack of robust research
models used to validate the claims.

This study indicates that there are differences between
management development programs using a management
simulation, a management game and case studies. All
programs impacted behavior change and learning and
there are strong indications that the choice of simulation,
game or case study does make a difference to the extent of
the impact. There is little substantive difference between
the management simulation and the management game
though both show greater positive behavior change and
greater learning than the case study group. The results show
that using a simulation or game in a program
significantly increases participant enjoyment and perceived
usefulness – suggesting that engagement in the learning
activity is higher and that practice in using skills in a
realistic (simulated) setting is fundamental in transferring
the learning to the workplace.

Do organizations spend wisely on employees? Effects of training and development investments on learning and innovation in organizations.


Sung, S., & Choi, J. (2014). Do organizations spend wisely on employees? Effects of training and development investments on learning and innovation in organizations. Journal Of Organizational Behavior, 35(3), 393-412. doi:10.1002/job.1897

In this article, Sung and Choi examine three types of learning: individual, interpersonal and organizational. The authors propose that the three types of learning can further be moderated by an organizational climate that supports and promotes innovation. Six different hypothesis were tested: Corporate training expenditure and financial support for education was expecting to be positively related to innovative performance. All three types of learning practices were proposed to mediate the relationship between training investment and innovative performance. And the final hypothesis stated that an innovated climate was expecting to moderate the relationship and make it stronger between learning practices and innovated performance for organizations with a higher level of climate that supported innovation.

A stratified and random sample was drawn from private business organizations. Industries included manufacturing, banking and service. The organization size varied from 100 to more than 2000 employees. In addition, the sample included publically versus privately. A final sample included 260 businesses.

Firm size, corporate training expenditure and financial support for education were shown to be predictors of innovative performance. In addition, corporate training expenditure was found to be a positive predictor of two types of learning; interpersonal and organizational. On the other hand, when examining the individual learning practices, it resulted in a non-meaningful predictor of innovation. The analysis demonstrated that learning practices when it comes to the individual are not associated with innovation whereas interpersonal and organizational learning practices have shown to provide a necessary condition for organizational innovation.

Learning Outcomes of a Work-based Training Programme: The significance of Managerial Support
Ellstrom, E., Ellstrom, P-E. (2014). Learning outcomes of a work-based training programme: The significance of managerial support. European Journal of Training and Development, 38(3) 180-197.

Previous research has cited the importance of managerial support for learning outcomes for training and the positive transfer of training. This article discusses education and training of care workers through a work-based vocational education and training program. The design of the study included six service units in elder care and was analyzed as a multiple-case study using replication logic rather than sampling logic. Replication logic can analyze across studies (units) because each unit is designed as one study in and of itself. Interviews with managers and care workers were used for data collection. The main findings of the study were that there were both similarities and differences in learning outcomes between the various units analyzed. Participants in all six units reported that training positively influenced their personal development. Three out of the six units showed evidence of positive transfer. The character of the font line manager was found to be a significant condition for the learning outcomes attained and the transfer of training to the job situation. The character of the front line manager can be either supportive or non-supportive. When the character of the front line manager was supportive a variety of learning outcomes was reported as well as positive transfer to work context. On the other hand, when the front line manager was non-supportive only learning outcomes restricted to the individual were reported. The article suggests management development needs to include learning how to lead and learning how to organize the learning and development process.

Training and Development Process and Organizational Culture Change

Conceição, S. O., & Altman, B. A. (2011). Organization Development Journal, 29(1), 33-43.

This article talks about a specific case regarding an information technology (IT) division and its training and development initiatives. The issue with the division was that it lacked a systematic approach for the encouragement of employee career development. A new approach was created and involved meetings with trainers and employees, the facilitation of conversations with one-on-one conversations with management and the consistent encouragement of input from employees. The implementation of the new training and development initiative took two years.

After the implementation of the initiative, data was collected through interviews and focus groups. Documents such as the organizational chart and the website were used to verify the organizational makeup. The unit of analysis was the new approach to the training and development process, and the outcome was the holistic description and the culture change within the IT department. The new culture was characterized by more contact between the training and development staff as well as increased contact with other members of the department and organization.

Firm size and the effectiveness of training for customer service


Leea, Gregory John

International Journal of Human Resource Management, August 1, 2012, Vol.23(12), p.2597(17)

This article examines ‘customer service’ training methods and its success among different firm sizes. Although research agrees that larger firms usually offer better training and better service, placement of training within a high-performance HR system usually achieves valued customer service skills. The article suggests that the benefit of training for customer service increases significantly with firm size the two major components associated with the success are: policy and practice.



Staff training for business process improvement: The benefit of role-plays in the case of KreditSim
Börner, R ; Moormann, J ; Wang, M
Journal Of Workplace Learning, 2012, v. 24 n. 3, p. 200-225 [Peer Reviewed Journal]

The paper examines a case study involving employee role-play in the banking industry (KreditSim). Various groups in both academic and professional environments have conducted this role-play. The authors used five role-play sessions to conduct a survey among the participants and questioned seven facilitators experienced in KreditSim to generate empirical evidence for the effectiveness of such role-plays.
Role-play enhanced the methodological, social and communicative learning. It also helps to engage staff members in process improvement efforts.

Incompetency training: Theory, practice, and remedies

Woodside, Arch G.

Journal of Business Research, March, 2012, Vol.65(3), p.279(15)

"Incompetency training" includes formal and informal instruction that consciously (purposively) or unconsciously imparts knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior (including procedures) that are useless, inaccurate, misleading, and/or will lower performance outcomes of the trainee versus no training or training using alternative training methods. This editorial is to stimulate research interest among scholars in incompetency training theory, evidence, and the efficacy of remedies. The editorial offers an early workbench model of incompetency training theory. The theory includes the proposition that executives and associates in firms, academia, and government organizations consciously as well as unknowingly offer incompetency training in many contexts. Increasing trainees' vigilance and ability to recognize exposure to incompetency-training may help trainees to decrease the effectiveness (impact) of exposures to incompetency training -- advancing incompetency training theory and knowledge of incompetency training practice may be necessary conditions for remedying negative outcomes that follow from trainees receiving such training. Available evidence supports the first proposition and, to a limited extent, the second proposition.

Management Training to Ensure Excellent Team Performance.

Brodke, M. (2013). Management training to ensure excellent team performance. Industrial & Commercial Training, 45(7), 428-432. doi:10.1108/ICT-05-2013-0032

This article talks about how existing management, as well as new management, should be trained to ensure optimal team performance. There are four factors that lead to team performance: planning and staffing, launching the team, ongoing support, and after action review. Training presents itself when these four factors are overlooked, or the details within these factors are overlooked.

For example, the first factor is planning and staffing. Planning and staffing are often overlooked due to the face paced environment when creating teams. Once a problem presents itself, a team may be assembled without considering some key factors. These factors include: whether a team appropriate, what will the team achieve, which individuals will be on the team, what skill sets these individuals have to achieve the team objective, and potential impacts to the organizational, the team and/or the individual.

Furthermore, some of the types of training that would help managers for the planning and staffing stage will include: identifying when a team, not an individual is best for solving a given problem, how to compose a team with complementary skills, and organizing and communicating criteria for team member selection.


By becoming aware of the intricacies of all four factors (through training) and implementing them in order, management becomes better equip to ensure excellent team performance.


The Strategic Micro-Firm: a Role Play in Management Training for Dynamic Businesses

Barnabè, F. (2013). The strategic micro-firm: a role play in management training for dynamic businesses. Journal of Workplace Learning, 25(5), 328–342. doi:10.1108/JWL-May-2012-0041

In this article the main characteristics of the role-playing game “Strategic Micro-Firm” which aims to replicate the central features of a complex supply chain. In addition it illustrates the strengths of using Strategic Micro-Firm as a means for training managers to face complex problems- supply chain. The Micro-F game reproduces most of the situations that normally characterize the daily operations of a company. In addition Strategic Micro-Firm is complementary of other traditional tools and educational approaches to management training, while it has a very specific focus on the ability to transfer a useful operating knowledge in an enduring manner, because it

  • stimulates people to cooperate in teams and think in terms of team goals;
  • supports processes of knowledge elicitation and knowledge sharing;
  • facilitates individual and organizational learning;
  • allows the development of a comprehensive vision of the production process and the main features of the reference market;
  • promotes the development of a trans-disciplinary professional approach to supply chain management;
  • and helps at bridging the gap between knowledge and action, facilitating the ability to transfer know-how to real working situations.


When Big Brother Is Watching: Goal Orientation Shapes Reactions to Electronic Monitoring During Online Training


Watson, A. M., Foster Thompson, L., Rudolph, J. V, Whelan, T. J., Behrend, T. S., & Gissel, A. L. (2013). When big brother is watching: goal orientation shapes reactions to electronic monitoring during online training. The Journal of applied psychology, 98(4), 642–57. doi:10.1037/a0032002

As stated in Watson, A. M., Foster Thompson, L., Rudolph, J. V, Whelan, T. J., Behrend, T. S., & Gissel, A. L. (2013) web-based training (WBT) at the workplace is becoming more popular now than ever before because the benefits it offers to both the employees and employers. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the extent to which electronic monitoring cause’s greater anxiety to some individuals during training. The psychology behind this phenomenon can be comprehended through a general framework for self-regulating behaviors in learning environment by looking at the goal orientation of traits as the antecedents of individuals’ affective reactions to electronically monitored WBT. MAT posits that people have chronically active goals (i.e., dispositional goal orientation) that influence their reactions to the learning environment, and ultimately their behaviors.

The current research supported this notion and further examined how learning context (i.e., EPM) can impact these relationships. Therefore, web-bases training (WBT) as stated by Watson, A. M., et al. (2013) is becoming more popular now than ever before because the benefits it offers to both employees and employers. The findings suggest that performance goal orientation leads to lower skill attainment during electronically monitoring WBT through evaluation of apprehension. Individuals with high-performance goal orientation (i.e., PPGO and APGO) showed higher levels of evaluation anxiety than those with low-performance goal orientation. When e-learners believed they were not being monitored, APGO and PPGO were unrelated to assessment apprehension and skill attainment. However, when e-learners perceived EPM was taking place, learners high in APGO and PPGO experienced higher levels of evaluation apprehension, which in turn led to lower performance on the skill attainment measure. Given that individuals with high levels of evaluation apprehension demonstrated lower levels of learning, the role of goal orientation in the design of training programs needs to be considered


The Performance of Female Entrepreneurs: Credit, Training and the Moderating Effect of Attitude towards Risk-Taking
Ekpe, I., Razak, R. C., & Mat, N. B. (2013). International Journal of Management, 20(3), 12-22.

The goal of this study with women entrepreneurs in Nigeria was to examine the relationship between risk taking, financial credit and training. Ekpe et al. (2013) distributed 280 questionnaires to women in various parts of Nigeria. A total of 161 questionnaires were used in a final analysis measuring the following variables: credit (based on a loan size), training (based on acquired skills and management training), and attitude (based on willingness to take risk).

Ekpe et al. (2013) documented that training was significantly related to performance among women entrepreneurs and that there was no statistically significant relation between loan access and performance. The researchers also documented that loan access and skill acquisition were significantly related and that skill acquisition was significantly related to sales. Among some recommendation, the researchers suggest that government should combine loan with training with an emphasis on skill acquisition. They also encourage women towards the development of risk-taking attitude.

Training and Organizational Effectiveness: Moderating Role of Knowledge Management Process

Rahman, A. A., Ng, S.I., Sambasivan, M., & Wong, F. (2013). European Journal of Training and Development, 37, 472-488.

The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether the costs invested in training and knowledge transfer had impact on organizational effectiveness. Rahman et al. (2013) hypothesized that there is a positive relationship between training of human resources (individual and process skills) and organizational effectiveness (H1) and that a relationship between training and organizational effectiveness is moderated by knowledge management process (H2).

After mailing a questionnaire to 1000 members of the Federation of Malaysian Manufactures, a total number of 88 (8.9% response rate) manufacturing organizations responded and each organization was used as the unit of analysis. The questionnaire items addressed the following areas: type of training programs emphasized by the organization, knowledge management, and organizational improvement.

Rahman et al. (2013) measured the following three organizational aspects: (a) training (individual, management, worker’s computer, technical, basic skills, customer service, team building, communication, quality), (b) knowledge management process (knowledge acquisition, knowledge conversion, knowledge application, and knowledge protection), and (c) organizational effectiveness (innovation, effort coordination, new product commercialization). The researchers demonstrated that organizational effectiveness significantly improved as a result of training offered to employees to acquire individual, managerial and process skills. The researchers also found that knowledge application and knowledge protection related to individual/managerial skills training which in turn improved organizational effectiveness.

Several study limitations were listed by the researchers including (a) a small sample size, (b) no causal relationship due to a cross-sectional study design, (c) information from only manufacturing firms, and (d) the use of self-report measures.

Understanding Managerial Development: Integrating Developmental Assignments, Learning Orientation, and Access to Developmental Opportunities in Predicting Managerial Competencies

Dragoni, L., Tesluk, P. E., Russell, J. A., & Oh, I. S. (2009). Academy of Management Journal, 52, 731-743.

This article examines a relationship between work experience, leadership development, and learning from new and challenging job assignments. Dragoni, Tesluk, Russel, and Oh (2009) developed and tested a model to find whether or not managerial development such as learning new skills, behaviors, and perspective is related to actual job assignments and fulfillment of one’s learning goals.

Three hundred fifty-one (351) part-time students enrolled in the MBA program and 272 supervisors filled out survey on managerial assignments and development. Final analysis consisted of survey instruments received from 218 junior-level managers and 215 supervisors. Dragoni et al. (2009) included the following variables and their measures: (a) “developmental quality of managerial assignments” measured by the Developmental Challenge Profile, (b) “learning goal orientation” tested by VandeWalle’s instrument, (c) “access to highly developmental managerial assignments” examined by a 3-item scale instrument designed for this study, and (d) “managers’ end-state competencies” measured by Spreitzer’s 24-item scale.

Dragoni et al. (2009) demonstrated that managers who are assigned challenging projects achieve higher levels of managerial competencies. In addition, managers with high goal orientation have more opportunities to be involved in challenging assignments and tend to gain more than those managers with low goal orientation.

The researchers pointed out several important implications for businesses including (a) the opportunity of developmental job assignments and rotation programs to enable managers systematically increase their competencies, (b) the exposure of managers with high potential to highly challenging job assignments, and (c) the encouragement given to high-potential managers to adopt a learning goal orientation when working on challenging assignments.


Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intentions: Impact of employee’s Training in Private Sector of Saudi Arabia

Jehanzeb, K., Rasheed, A., & Rasheed, M. F. (2013). International Journal of Business and Management, 8(8), 79-90.

This study examined the extent to which the perception of availability of training influenced organizational commitment and turnover intentions. Jehanzeb, Rasheed and Rasheed (2013) hypothesized that there was a positive relationship between availability of training and organizational commitment, employee motivation to learn and organizational commitment, manager support for training and organizational commitment; that there was a negative relationship between organizational commitment and employee turnover intention.

Survey questionnaires were distributed to 350 randomly selected employees from various industries in private sector of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Researchers selected 251 (72% response rate) surveys for final analysis. Participants included male (95.7%), female (4.3%), with the age range of 31 – over 50, and diverse nationalities - Saudis (59.4%) and Non-Saudis (40.6%).

The dependent variables included organizational commitment and turnover intentions. The independent variables consisted of availability of training program (seven item scale), motivation to learn [three item scale from Noe & Schmitt (1986)], manager support for training (ten item scale), and organizational commitment [Meyer et al. (1993) scale].

The research findings indicated a positive relationship between availability of training and organizational commitment (H1) and a positive relationship manager support for training and organizational commitment (H3). The results also supported hypothesized negative relationship between organizational commitment and employee turnover intentions (H4). There was insignificant relationship between motivation to learn and organizational commitment. Therefore, there was not enough evidence to support Hypothesis 2.

Interestingly, motivation to learn and organizational commitment did not produce significant difference in this research. Researchers suggested that employees might be motivated to learn but they did not use their new learned skills. Therefore, such a relationship was absent.


Your Prized Executive Is Leaving. Now What?

Ledgerwood, J. R., & Morgan, S. N. (2013). Strategic Finance, 95(4), 41-45.

This article examined the development of succession planning case for the chief operating officer (COO) of Enright Flight Ministries (EFM), a nonprofit corporation based in Daytona Beach, Fla. The planning process started with defining the job as the first key element. In the efforts to define the job, EFM identified five areas of requirement to consider the replacement candidate as follows; fundraising ability, teaching ability, corporate vision, international experience, and managerial experience. Those characteristics must be aligned with the EFM’s values. Therefore, the board of EFM clarified the values. Based on the identified desirable candidate characteristics and the created values, EFM directors identified three types of candidate pools; family members, African pastor, and external missionary. Pros and cons of the each pool were explored. While family members can foster Enright’s reputation, easily maintain the existing fund base, and continue with in-depth understanding of the values, the company may be viewed as stagnant without fresh blood, and also performance orientation of the replacement may be compromised. Secondly, although African graduates from EFM pastor school may meet the desired criteria through their training at the school, they may have operational difficulties in maintaining the relationship with contacts in U.S. Finally, recruiting by external selection would bring in fresh talent with new network. However, the board must carefully evaluate the candidates to ensure their understanding of the organizational values, mission and plans.

The authors also recommend keeping succession planning as a constant practice in the organization to plan ahead of replacement time. The list of recommendations is specifically: 1) add succession planning as an agenda at the annual general meeting; 2) review the succession plan at the annual meeting; 3) keep updating the list of candidates; and 4) keep updating the existing succession plan.


How to create an employee training program

eHow.com

The following bullets illustrate a training development process.

  1. Conduct a needs assessment for your organization to identify specific training needs.
  2. Review the results of your needs assessment to estimate the number of employees in needs for the training. Determine how much money should be allocated to the training activity according to a copy of the human resources budget.
  3. Based on the needs assessment, determine levels of training for employees in various work groups described in an employee roster with job title, tenure and performance.
  4. Draft the training program based on number of employees, position and needs.


How to Take Advantage of Online Training Tools

Entrepreneur, October 31, 2012

Online employee training resources are becoming increasingly popular. Many entrepreneurs are taking advantage of online resources in terms of the cost of time and money over more traditional onsite training. The article lists five factors to consider when choosing online training.

The first factor is specificity. There are vast possibilities in online training resources. One may choose a very specific training rather than more general marketing content if that is available. The second factor is flexibility. Unlike many offline training, online training provided via broadband allows self-paced learning and revisit/replay of the same topic content. The third is mobile technology. As online training can be provided in remote, why not mobile apps option? Fourthly, as the internet can allow you to learn from the true experts in the field regardless of regional distance. Then, why not pick the topnotch? Finally, not every online training is excellent so thorough research should be conducted for selecting the training.


Means and end.

Kirkpatrick, J. (2013). Training Journal, 9-12.

The article describes an interview with Jim Kirkpatrick of New World Kirkpatrick Model. Over the last six decades Kirkpatrick has created a training evaluation model that consist of four levels. Over the years the model has been modified but retains its original four levels. The four levels consist of reaction, learning, behavior and results but it focuses on the transfer of training in the workplace.

The New World Kirkpatrick Model levels are reaction, learning, behavior and results. Level 1 helps organizations with employee engagement, relevance and customer satisfaction. This allows participants react favorably to the learning event. Level 2 consists of knowledge, skills, attitude, confidence, and commitment. This level allows participants to build bridges with other businesses to enhance their network and accountability to help them increase their success. Level 3 monitors, reinforce, encourage, reward, and provide on-the-job training. This level behavior helps participants incorporating meeting the organizations goals by molding their employees’ behavior to meet the organizations culture. The last level 4 consist of results in leading indicators and desired outcomes.

According to the author, several organizations lack training beyond the training function of a classroom. “Too often training is seen as an end in itself rather than a means to an end is disconnected from the rest of the organization” (p. 10, para. 4). The purpose of their type of training evaluation is to encourage business to increase their performance and network by breaking away from formal training, by using different levels that apply to their situation instead of starting on level 1, when it is not necessary.

The author describes an interview conducted with the training evaluation professional Jim Kirkpatrick which focuses on his "New World Kirkpatrick" model for employeetraining programs. Topics include the impact of employeetraining on organizational performance and Jim's father Donald Kirkpatrick, who developed a model for training evaluations that focused on reactions, learning, behavior, and results.


So much training, so little to show for it: An expert on corporate programs reveals why they often are a waste of time and money

The Wall St. Journal, October 26, 2012

According to the data from American Society for Training and Development in 2011, while $156 billion was spent on training in U.S. firms, 90 % of the acquired skills were suggested to be lost within a year. The factors to this issue, as Dr. Salas from University of Florida discussed in this article, are what action is taken before and after the training.

The followings are the critical factors of the training success, and the companies often fail to address them. The training needs must be analyzed. Who needs what training? Based on that, the training goals and objectives must be clarified to determine the focus and the design of the training. Furthermore, positive evaluation of the training contents by the trainees does not necessarily mean the effectiveness of the training or how much they learned. The learning outcome of the training must be measured, and the feedback must be given so the continuous improvement is supported. The companies also have to ensure that the environment and climate enable the workers to practice and sustain the trained skills.

The above points are very common knowledge to the expert practitioners in our field, not particularly fresh and new. We do our best to have quality contents in the training program for the best learning outcome while keeping it fun and engaging to boost the learning motivation. Sadly, the results do not always last in your organization if you do not properly follow up the workers’ training outcome or align the training with the needs and the environment. Now, ask yourself. Do you get the right training after the right preparation, and do the right follow-up? Please, feel free to contact us should you need to discuss.


Improving Employees’ Interpersonal Communication Competencies: A Qualitative Study.

Hynes, G. E. (2012). Business Communication Quarterly, 75(4), 466-475.

In this study the author believes encouraging employee engagement through training will assist a business to be successful. Since, the work environment has a profound effect on employee performance companies should provide training to enhance their employees interpersonal communication skills. “In The Progress Principle: Using Small Wins to Ignite Joy, Engagement, and Creativity at Work, Amabile and Kramer (2011) describe the effects of employee engagement in detail [by] studying "238 professesional in seven different companies in three industries, charting the employees' psychological state each day for 2 years, as reflected in electronic diary entries" (para. 2). This analysis consisted of their ““inner work lives”—perceptions, emotions, and motivations that they experienced as they made sense of their workday” (para. 3). Based on this study employees’ inner work lifestyles were influenced by creativity, productivity, collegiality and work commitment. Although, there have been several studies analyzing employees’ inner work lives they all have one thing in common which is “relationship between employee engagement and business success may seek ways to foster and facilitate workers’ emotional well-being”( para. 5). So, based on this research what should a company do to achieve their goals.

“One approach to encouraging and supporting employee engagement is to provide training in interpersonal communication” (para. 8). This approach will assist employees in developing a healthy work environment like a company list in the top 200 on the Fortune’s list of the 500 largest public companies in America. For instance, a large IT company with several divisions was able to achieve their goal by training their employees’ to improve their interpersonal goals. One way they approached this is by having their employees’ “find creative solutions to complex problems by offering them development opportunities to enhance both technical skills and professional competencies” (para. 10). This approached enhanced employees’ communication and productivity as well their performance.

Therefore, this training program content and material were focused on daily interactions with “three audiences: superiors, peers in IT, and nontechnical colleagues in the company” (para. 12). This program offered concrete tactics and strategies with realistic examples opened for discussions and developed action plans that are related to the IT Company. So, based on this study it is vital to implement a training program that addresses interpersonal communication in order to enhance the working culture within the company.


Lagged effects of training on financial performance: Evidence from longitudinal data.

Yahn-Shir, C., Joseph, H., & Mei-Ting, H. (2013). Global Journal Of Business Research (GJBR), 7(1), 9-20.

The authors examine professional staffs, partners and assistants in participating in continuous professional education (CPE) programs. In most organizations CPE is used to pass on new knowledge onto their assistants through internal training programs. Based on this CPE, the authors believe there is a “lagged association between the training and financial performance and the degree of association varies for differently training participants” (para. 1).

Based on the panel data of 136 audit firms in Taiwan from 1992 to 1998, the authors are focusing on a fixed year lagged periods. According to the authors, the professional partners and assistants’ training had positive effects on the financial performance with the one-year-lagged and two year-lagged period. The positive association between training and the financial performance informs practitioners that training contributes to audit firms and justifies the continuous education requirement in the public accounting profession. This “evidence of the one-year-delay financial performance effects of assistants’ training signals managerial implication to the employee recruitment policy of audit firms” (para. 5). Based on this knowledge it is advisable for practitioners to reduce their assistants turnover rate to accumulate human capital. Another positive feature of association between training and financial performance is to inform practitioners that CPE assists in employee recruitment policies.

Based on the evidence of lagged association this explains part of the mixed results on the relation between training and financial performance. Therefore, this training is effective in auditing proficiency with new accounting and audit standards. This reiterates valuable knowledge and promotes communication among professionals. After analyzing this data between lagged periods and financial performance professional training is critical for the success of new employees’.

Applying cognitive adjustment theory to cross-cultural training for global virtual teams

Brandl, J., & Neyer, A. (2009). Human Resource Management, 48, 341-353. doi:10.1002/hrm.20284

Global virtual teams are culturally diverse, and work across temporal and geographical distance. They are faced with difficulties of developing trust with the presence of anxiety for communication difficulties. This article suggests that the type of cross-cultural training (CCT) can influence cognitive adjustment in global virtual teams.

Given the complexity of interactions in a multinational team, CCT that is focused on country-specific cultural knowledge is often inadequate. In order to address the limitations of CCT, the authors propose emphasis on cognitive adjustment, with which team members can understand each other by taking others’ perspectives. In order to communicate effectively in cross-cultural setting, one needs to be open to new information and to alternative interpretation.

Often, global virtual teams consist of cross-cultural members who have never met each other in person. Thus, they have to work in rather unknown context under high anxiety and uncertainty. Those who are transferred to unfamiliar context with high uncertainty and anxiety tend behave in their usual way because they do not know any other appropriate way. However, in order to enhance effective communication in such a context, people must adopt mindfulness in their listening, interpretation, and expression, and adjust their “thinking and behaving as usual” to “outside their own world.”

From the cognitive adjustment perspective, the authors contrasted two types of CCT, namely, cultural orientation program and cultural awareness training. Cultural orientation programs are most common approaches to CCT. They aim to advance one’s knowledge of other cultures so that one can handle unknown cultural situations with less anxiety and less uncertainty. However, there is a risk of inducing stereotypes. Moreover, ready-made concepts of other culture cannot capture the fine details and complexity. It is likely to result in distrust and exclusion. On the other hand, cultural awareness training focuses on enhancing the adaptability to unknowns without relying on specific cultural knowledge. It seeks to develop the team members’ awareness of presence of uncertainty, problem solving skills, and mental maps for sense making.


Mind the global skills gap

O’Leonard, K. (2012). Chief Learning Officer, 11(8), 50-52.

The global unemployment rates are extremely high, which is causing an imbalanced skill gap that threatens our economic global growth. In this article, the author points out in 2010, the United States spent more on employee developments verse previous years. According to the Bersin & Associates estimates they discovered that learning organizations are seeking ways to cut their training costs by allowing social learning. Social learning is when “employees collaborate, share ideas and exchange information” (O’Leonard, 2012). The data by Bersin & Associates shows the United States training staff, to learner ratios is decreasing, because organizations are relying on technology based training, as well as the move to informal and collaborative learning. An example of these trainings consists of e-learning, virtual instructor-led and social learning. With this type of training organizations are able to decrease their costs to $51 per hour.

In addition, with organizations training their employees’ this provides benefits to the organization by filling in the skill gap within their organization. This indicates a turning point away from the formal classroom training, which has led to large businesses investing in social learning, which is doubled compared to 2010. Also, with the high-impact learning organizations this makes them more efficient, effective and aligned with their business. This will result in profit-driven organizations that “will benefit from creativity, innovation, trust and ingenuity that come from learner centered approaches” (p.52).


Workplace learning strategies, barriers, facilitators and outcomes: a qualitative study among human resource management practitioners

Crouse, P., Doyles, W., & Young, J. (2011). Human Resources Development International, 14(1), 39-55.

Researchers out of Canada studied training and learning with the role of human resources management (HRM) in the organization. The authors examined 13 HRM practitioners in government, healthcare, post-secondary education and business organizations in the Halifax Regional Municipality area in order to understand learning to better assist in the professional development of employees. Specifically, researchers set out to better understand learning strategies, barriers to facilitators of training and outcomes of learning. Based on these interviews, data was extracted and the results indicated that these practitioners are mostly similar to other professional groups in terms of workplace learning, with a few key differences. The similarities and differences are presented, and implications of these findings for HRM practitioners and future directions for research are discussed.


Rethinking UK small employers' skills policies and the role of workplace learning

Kitching, J. (2008). International Journal Of Training And Development, 12(2), 100-120.

Researchers in the UK set out to understand work place learning in employer’s skill policies in small businesses. First, small employers’ skills policies are highly diverse: strategic, tactical and restrictive policies are distinguished. Second, employers perceive particular benefits in enabling workplace learning; simplistic views that a reliance on workplace learning necessarily constitutes an inferior last resort for those employers unable to provide access to external training are rejected. Third, enabling workplace learning is important to strategic employers, as well as to those attaching a lower value to skills. The data was drawn from a telephone survey of 1005 small business owners, followed by a separate face-to-face interview sample of 50 employers to provide the adequate qualitative data necessary.

The effects of organizational training on organizational commitment

Bulut, C., & Culha, O. (2010). International Journal of Training and Development, 14, 309-322. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2419.2010.00360.x

Bulut and Culha conducted an empirical study to examine the impact of training on organizational commitment. Four hypotheses were proposed: H1) perceived motivation to training positively affects their organizational commitment; H2) degree of access to training positively affects their organizational commitment; H3) degree of perceived benefits from training positively affects their organizational commitment; and H4) degree of perceived support for training positively affects their organizational commitment. Survey was conducted with total of 298 survey respondents in 13 four- and five-star hotels in Izmir, Turkey. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the measurement quality before hypotheses testing. Due to poor model fit and no previous empirical examination of the validity of the scale, the scales were re-examined and screened. As a result, the original 16-item scale was filtered down to a 6-item scale that demonstrated a perfect fit to the data and convergent validity with the original scale. Multiple regression was performed to examine the hypothesized relationships. The results supported all of the proposed hypotheses. The findings indicate that effective training is an antecedent to organizational commitment, and due encouragement, accessibility, informed benefit, and support must be attended to enhance the training effectiveness and organizational commitment.


Impact of training on job turnover: Evidence from contemporary literature

Dardar, A., Jusoh, A., & Md Rasli, A. (2011). Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3, 929-940.

“Training is debated in literature to be linked with employee job turnover intention and job satisfaction. The purpose of this paper was to review the contemporary literature that link employee training to turnover intentions and employee job satisfaction. The review of the contemporary literature presents mixed results that links training positively and negatively to both employee turnover intentions and job satisfaction. This review of contemporary literature suggest the need to broaden the horizon of research in developing and under-developed countries f Asia and North Africa to better savvy the significance on the role of training and training quality and its consequences” (Abstract).


Much is gained when employees are properly trained

K. Morris (2012). Hotel Management, 227(3), 10.

It seems very costly and wasteful to spend your resources and time for training, considering all the valuable resources diverted from making money. But do not underestimate the importance of training or it might kill you. The Holiday Inn Batson Rouge South hosted a facility for a conference, and platform set up for the event collapsed during sessions while people are on it. Of course, they were sued for injuries, and liability dispute was not even made. The subsequent investigation found that the platform was built improperly by the employees who had not been trained how to carry out the task. You want to arm yourself and your people with sufficient training.


Organization adjustments, job training and productivity: Evidence from Japanese automobile makers

K. Ariga, M. Kurosawa, F. Ohtake, M. Sasaki, & S. Yamane

The researchers administered the originally constructed survey to assemblers at two Japanese major automobile makers to investigate the demand of on-the-job training (OJT). The results indicated that OJT is implemented when the assembler is relocated or rotated to different operations where new skill sets are required. The extent and intensity of the training are indicated to be adjusted in response to productivity shock. The assemblers reported to subjectively perceive the gains from the training.

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Utilising a virtual world to teach performance appraisal: An exploratory study

S. Morse

There is a new avenue for training in virtual environments. Morse conducted an explorative study to assess the use of a virtual world for teaching human resource development (HRD) students about performance appraisal. For the virtual world environment, Second Life was used. Certain strengths and weakness in this approach were identified.

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Extent of e-learning effectiveness and efficiency in an integrated blended learning environment.

S. Hameed, K. Fathulla,& A. Thomas

E-learning is hot. Are you thinking about replacing traditional training methods with e-learning? Hold it right there. Although e-learning can be a convenient alternative method, it may be premature to just replace the old ways with it. The study shows blended approach rather than pure e-learning is indicated to add the best value to learning experience with flexibility and scalability.

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Surviving Troubled Times: 5 Best Practices for Training Solutions

S.W. Villachica, D.A. Stepich, and S. Rist

Training has surfaced as one of the more important aspects to monitor and develop to help an organization thrive in the current economic circumstances. The authors have compiled a list on how to make your performance improvement programs really be the best they can. The five items are supplemented with detailed information that no training professional should pass up reading.

Find out what training should look like in the full article here:

Benefits of training and development for individuals and teams, organizations, and society

H. Aguinis & K. Kraiger

This is a quite reader-friendly summary of training and development studies. Aguinis and Kraiger reviewed the training literatures since the 2000 regarding the benefits of training and development. The article provides relatively comprehensive views of training and development, covering multidisciplinary, multilevel, and global perspectives. In addition, the peripheral details surrounding training and developments, and research gap and the direction of future research are provided.

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Good to Great to Gone

T. Wulf

The fall of Circuit City provides lessons in running a successful enterprise that we won’t soon forget. In a series of bad decisions, the electronics superstar soon found itself to be yet another victim of the hard economic times. They were at the top of their industry when they provided world-class training, and cutting that out to survive financially did not fare well for the company. This article in Training Magazine proves another reminder about the importance of quality training.

Find out what went wrong in the full article here:

Enhancing employees’ commitment to organisation through training

O. A. Owoyemi, M. Oyelere, T. Elegbede, & M. Gbajumo-Sheriff

The researchers investigated the relationship between training and employees’ organizational commitment. The participants in this study were sampled from Financial Service organization in South-Western Nigeria. The results of the regression analysis indicated that the more training given to employees, the stronger organizational commitment the employees would display.

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Making Mobility Matter

H. R. Nalbantian & R. A. Guzzo

An idea that's often taken for granted is to develop a well-rounded manager by mobilizing a leader across a number of roles to get varied experience. In an effort to generate leaders, an organization must consider whether this is the most effective option of training managers or if it causes disruption to internal operations. Nalbantian and Guzzo provide some insight about how best to customize the complex process of mobility to your specific organization.

Find out more information about mobility here



ERP training with a web-based electronic learning system: The flow theory perspective

D. H. Choi, J. Kim, & S. H. Kim

E-learning is hot, now. Choi, Kim and Kim present a model for a successful e-learning. The study is based on the flow theory. The “flow” refers to holistic sensation perceived through total involvement in a given activity. The flow experience is theorized occur when the following dimensions are present; clear goals, immediate feedback, potential control, the merger of action and awareness, personal skills well suited to given challenges, concentration, loss of self-consciousness, time distortion, and autotelic experience. The results show that experience of “being in flow” has direct and indirect impact on learning outcome. For practitioners of web-based training to implement a successful program, the researchers present four take-home messages in the end.

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Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

P. R. Lyons


The authors provide a performance improvement effort based on templates and thus called Performance Templates (P-T). The paper explains in detail what they mean by templates and the features resulting from them. There are six dynamics of learning. This dynamics suggest that that the templates satisfy all of the learning dynamics while providing the benefit of a systematic guide on how to create a P-T. The Performance Template process has a basis of theory.



What kind of theory do you believe is the underlying mechanism? Did this new improvement in performance measurement lead to improvement and achievement? Please read the article to find out .


Is More Structure Better? A Comparison of Frame-of-Reference Training and Descriptively Anchored Rating Scales to Improve Interviewers’ Rating Quality

K. G. Melchers, N. Lienhardt, M. V. Aarburg, & M. Klienmann
The study presents two methods to improve interview structure: 1) conducting training and 2) anchored rating scales. Training substantially improves rater accuracy and using descriptive anchored rating scales did improve accuracy and interrater reliability for participants with controlled training. The limitation of this study is that it only looked at short-term effects, measuring accuracy directly after training.
To read the full article click here .

Wanted: Training competencies for the 21st Century

V. Kalargyrou & R. H. Woods


10 training professionals employed at two hotel-casino's were interviewed in depth to establish individual training competencies of professionals in hospitality. From the employee's viewpoint 11 competencies were established for managers to be effective in training. As you may guess, teamwork was at the forefront of the competencies. Measuring training, specifically how one measures training is another competency. What are the remaining nine? If you decide to read the article for the remaining competencies you are actually demonstrating one of them--pro-activeness.

To read the full article click here .


Entrepreneur Training Needs Analysis: Implications on the Entrepreneurial Skills Needed for Successful Entrepreneurs

R. Jusoh, B. Ziyae, S. Asimiran & S. A. Kadir

Do entrepreneurs need education? Do they need training? According to this study the answer is yes. 30 entrepreneurs were interviewed regarding their business and the competencies needed for success. Results indicate that the highest skills owned were selling and leadership while the lowest skills owned were expertise in e-commerce and internet use. The article details over 25 skills, how they were analyzed, how each respondent performed and what specific skills required training. Overall, those surveyed were moderately skilled.

To read the full article click here .

The Apllication Bridge: A model for Improving Trainee Engagement in the Training Process

D. L. Bates, T. J. Davis

Many trainees feel that the process at which they are trained is not relevant to the day-to-day process of the work they are being trained for. This paper suggests that there is an application bridge that must be provided in order for the trainee make theory useful in the training process. The authors state that the application bridge is necessary to produce effective training and overcomes a major problem in how training is provided. What exactly is an application bridge? You will find out by reading the full article.

To continue reading this article click here .

Heuristics and Biases in Data-Based Decision Making: Effects of Experience, Training, and Graphical Data Displays

W. J. Hutchinson, J. W. Alba & E. M. Eisenstein

The research here investigates decision making. The authors attempt to answer three important questions about inferences related to data bases. The authors identify three broad classes of heuristics. What were the questions they asked? How were the classes of heuristics developed and if that weren't enough, all three heuristics created biases on some level.

You have to read this article .



Training Needs Assessment: Understanding What Employees Need to Know

T. L. Cekada

Did you know that there is an 11-step approach to conduction a training needs assessment? There are many different models out there and trying to comb through all of them can be exhausting. This article determines what questions to answer to help steer you in the right direction when conducting a training needs assessment.

To continue reading this article click here .





THE PRESENT AND FUTURE STATE OF BLENDED LEARNING IN WORKPLACE EARNING SETTINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

Kyong-Jee Kim Curtis J. Bonk Eunjung Oh

A new trend in training called blended learning is getting a lot of attention, many companies are exploring their new training options to lower training costs and time. This articles discusses the strengths and barriers of blended learning through surveys.

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Corporate eLearning: Human Resource Development Implications for Large and Small Organizations

LIAM BROWN, EAMONN MURPHY & VINCENT WADE

This paper compares and contrasts the current attitudes towards, awareness of and take-up of eLearning in large and small organizations and outlines the implications for human resource development professionals.

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How companies in developing markets can cultivate the leaders they lack

By Jean Lee


This article is a summary of a questionnaire given to 100 successful mid-level and senior executives from different industries in China. The results offer several key components to leadership development in emerging markets.

Click her to read more: class="MsoHyperlinkFollowed">http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704878904575030901196923746.html?KEYWORDS=corporate+training



By Sanjay Anandaram
June 16, 2010

The Indian economy is growing; therefore, business, investors, and consumers should be aware of associated pitfalls of Start-up businesses. The demand to get a business profitable quickly comes at the price of inexperienced employees. The article suggests that executive teams need to understand the importance of managing expectation while employees gain the necessary training to succeed.

Click here to read more:
http://blogs.wsj.com/india-chief-mentor/2010/06/16/startups-need-to-focus-on-training/?blog_id=134&post_id=596



Effectiveness of Training in Organizations: A Meta-Analysis of Design and Evaluation Features

Winfred Arthur Jr., Winston Bennett Jr., and Pamela S. Edens, and Suzanne T. Bell

This study researched the effectiveness of training programs in organizations by using meta-analytic procedures. The findings in the article suggest that specific training design and the skill or task characteristic trained and selected training evaluation features, resulted in increased effectiveness of training programs.

To read the full article click here


The coach-coachee relationship in executive coaching: A field study

Morin, L., & Baron

A study was conducted to investigate successful executive coaching. The findings suggest that the relationship between coach and coachee is a important mediating variable in productive and successful coaching.

To continue reading this article click here .


Learning From Our Mistakes: Error Management Training For Mature Learners

Kelly A. Chillarege, Cynthia R. Nordstrom & Karen B. Williams

This article explores training types and training goals on performance. Specifically, error management training produced high performance scores. In contrast, error avoidant training did not gleam the same results. The article details training types and training goal and how these two constructs interact on skill acquisition.

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A Meta-Analytic Review of Behavior Modeling Training

P. J. Taylor, D. F. Russ-Eft, D. W. & L. Chan

Behavior Modeling Training (BMT) is a training intervention that is psychologically based. This training emphasizes a set of behaviors or skills that are to be learned by the trainee, describes the effective use of the behaviors learned through a model or multiple models, provides opportunities to practice and receive feedback on training outcomes learned, and provides a sequence of steps to maximize the transfer of training knowledge.

To continue reading this article click here .


A Cumulative Study of the Effectiveness of Managerial Training

M. J. Burke & R. R. Day

The objective of managerial training programs is to improve performance on the job. Organizations intend to improve on areas such as human relations, self-awareness, problem solving, decision making, motivation/values, and general management skills. Many organizations do not know how effective these training programs are and this persistent lack of knowledge is primarily due to the limited evaluative research in these areas.

To continue reading this article that also includes an analysis of 70 managerial training studies please click here .


Does Method Matter? A meta-analysis of the effects of training method on older learner training performance

J. S. Callahan, D. Scott & T. C.

Does the training method matter when older individuals are trained for performance? Can older individuals even be trained? The effects of instructional methods and factors on older trainee performance are detailed in this meta-analysis—an article worth reading.

To read this article click here .


Measuring Training Results: Key to Managerial Commitment

J.D. Bell & D.L. Kerr

It is advantageous for organizations to train their current workforce. Organizations do not have to waste money on recruiting replacements and they keep their workforce up to date with the changes in technology. However, providing training is not enough. Organizations need to measure their training programs in order to assess the effectiveness as well as the accountability. Using Del Gaizo’s 4 level evaluation model, organizations can bring accountability on their training programs.

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Transitions in Training for Changing Times

J. Lui

Organizations today are starting to learn the value of their employees. They are valued assets that they have invested a lot of time and money. Billions of dollars have been spent on training in organizations, so training in the right format to be effective should be the first priority. Methods of training such as cross training and simulation games can help mend some of the gaps that have formed in the fabric of the organization due to the wrong training format.

Click here to read more about Transitions in Training .


Online Large-Margin Training of Dependency Parsers

R. McDonald, K. Crammer & F. Pereira

Training today has spanned to every industry in the market to help improve their practices. Some online training have used simple linear parsing models trained with margin-sensitive online training algorithms, achieving state-of-the-art performance with relatively modest training times and no need for pruning heuristics to improve their training.

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Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory

S. Jaeggi, M. Buschkuehl, J. Jonides & W. Perrig

Fluid intelligence (Gf) refers to the ability to reason and to solve new problems independently of previously acquired knowledge. This study concludes that it is possible to improve Gf without practicing the testing tasks themselves, opening a wide range of applications.

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Woman-only Management Training: An Essential Part of Women's leadership development

S. Vinnicombe & V. Singh

This article discusses how important it is to have woman-only training. Leadership development as an approach has been geared toward male leadership generation after generation. Elements of woman-only training are also mentioned.

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Increasing Leadership Integrity through Mind Training and Embodied Learning

K. G. Schuyler

In academia there is controversy in the belief of trait learning, if individuals are able to learn certain trait characteristics and personality characteristic that the individual may lack. Schuyler’s research suggests that consultants can train leaders to develop more integrity through lojong in Tibetan Buddhism techniques. The practices of lojong deals with mind training and helping individuals to be aware of their surroundings. Consultants can train leaders using these methods to help the leader become more mindful, alert to their surrounding and hopefully, to have compassion to those that they lead.

To continue reading this article click here .


Trainee Perceptions of Training Transfer: An Empirical Analysis

I. Nikandrou; V. Brinia & E. Bereri

Training transfer is important to all aspects of the organization, production and financial. One could have the best training programs in the world but if the person being trained doesn't see the value of the skills learned or doesn't have the motivation to acquire the skills, the transfer of training is bleak. The articles goes into detail regarding an innovative training program, called the “project method.” This training design is based on the participants interests and needs. Would you like to see the results of this new design? Read the full article by clicking here .


Training Needs Assessment: Understanding what employees need to know

T. L. Cekada




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